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- The Dangers of Secondhand Smoke
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Recent studies have shown a positive relationship between psychological distress and salivary cotinine levels in smoking and non-smoking adults, indicating that both firsthand and secondhand smoke exposure may lead to higher levels of mental stress. Medical researchers have found that smoking is a predictor of divorce. The usage of tobacco can also create cognitive dysfunction.
There seems to be an increased risk of Alzheimer's disease , although "case—control and cohort studies produce conflicting results as to the direction of the association between smoking and AD". Most notably, some studies have found that patients with Alzheimer's disease are more likely not to have smoked than the general population, which has been interpreted to suggest that smoking offers some protection against Alzheimer's.
However, the research in this area is limited and the results are conflicting; some studies show that smoking increases the risk of Alzheimer's disease. Some older analyses have claimed that non-smokers are up to twice as likely as smokers to develop Alzheimer's disease. Researchers without tobacco lobby influence have concluded the complete opposite: Smokers are almost twice as likely as nonsmokers to develop Alzheimer's disease. Former and current smokers have a lower incidence of Parkinson's disease compared to people who have never smoked,   although the authors stated that it was more likely that the movement disorders which are part of Parkinson's disease prevented people from being able to smoke than that smoking itself was protective.
Another study considered a possible role of nicotine in reducing Parkinson's risk: nicotine stimulates the dopaminergic system of the brain, which is damaged in Parkinson's disease, while other compounds in tobacco smoke inhibit MAO-B , an enzyme which produces oxidative radicals by breaking down dopamine. In many respects, nicotine acts on the nervous system in a similar way to caffeine. Some writings have stated that smoking can also increase mental concentration ; one study documents a significantly better performance on the normed Advanced Raven Progressive Matrices test after smoking.
Most smokers, when denied access to nicotine , exhibit withdrawal symptoms such as irritability, jitteriness, dry mouth , and rapid heart beat.
Unlike some recreational drugs , nicotine does not measurably alter a smoker's motor skills , judgement , or language abilities while under the influence of the drug. Tobacco withdrawal has been shown to cause clinically significant distress. A very large percentage of schizophrenics smoke tobacco as a form of self-medication. In , a meta-analysis found that smokers were at greater risk of developing psychotic illness.
Recent studies have linked smoking to anxiety disorders, suggesting the correlation and possibly mechanism may be related to the broad class of anxiety disorders, and not limited to just depression. Current and ongoing research attempt to explore the addiction-anxiety relationship.
Data from multiple studies suggest that anxiety disorders and depression play a role in cigarette smoking. A number of studies have shown that tobacco use is a significant factor in miscarriages among pregnant smokers, and that it contributes to a number of other threats to the health of the fetus. It slightly increases the risk of neural tube defects. Environmental tobacco smoke exposure and maternal smoking during pregnancy have been shown to cause lower infant birth weights.
Studies have shown an association between prenatal exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and conduct disorder in children. Smoking is known to increase levels of liver enzymes that break down drugs and toxins. That means that drugs cleared by these enzymes are cleared more quickly in smokers, which may result in the drugs not working. Specifically, levels of CYP1A2 and CYP2A6 are induced:   substrates for 1A2 include caffeine and tricyclic antidepressants such as amitriptyline ; substrates for 2A6 include the anticonvulsant, valproic acid.
Studies suggest that smoking decreases appetite, but did not conclude that overweight people should smoke or that their health would improve by smoking. This is also a cause of heart diseases. Smoking increases the risk of symptoms associated with Crohn's disease a dose-dependent effect with use of greater than 15 cigarettes per day. Some preliminary data from suggested a reduced incidence of uterine fibroids ,  but overall the evidence is unconvincing.
Research and resources | Truth Initiative
Current research shows that tobacco smokers who are exposed to residential radon are twice as likely to develop lung cancer as non-smokers. New research has found that women who smoke are at significantly increased risk of developing an abdominal aortic aneurysm , a condition in which a weak area of the abdominal aorta expands or bulges, and is the most common form of aortic aneurysm. Smoking leads to an increased risk of bone fractures, especially hip fractures.
In addition to the numerous documented negative health effects of smoking, several types of "smoker's paradoxes" cases where smoking appears to have specific beneficial effects have been observed. Smoke, or any partially burnt organic matter, contains carcinogens cancer-causing agents.
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The potential effects of smoking, such as lung cancer, can take up to 20 years to manifest themselves. Historically, women began smoking en masse later than men, so an increased death rate caused by smoking amongst women did not appear until later. The male lung cancer death rate decreased in — roughly 20 years after the initial decline in cigarette consumption in men.
The Dangers of Secondhand Smoke
A fall in consumption in women also began in  but by had not manifested in a decrease in lung cancer-related mortalities amongst women. Smoke contains several carcinogenic pyrolytic products that bind to DNA and cause genetic mutations. Particularly potent carcinogens are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons PAH , which are toxicated to mutagenic epoxides. The first PAH to be identified as a carcinogen in tobacco smoke was benzopyrene , which has been shown to toxicate into an epoxide that irreversibly attaches to a cell's nuclear DNA, which may either kill the cell or cause a genetic mutation.
If the mutation inhibits programmed cell death , the cell can survive to become a cancer cell. Similarly, acrolein , which is abundant in tobacco smoke, also irreversibly binds to DNA, causes mutations and thus also cancer. However, it needs no activation to become carcinogenic. There are over 19 known carcinogens in cigarette smoke.
Sidestream tobacco smoke, or exhaled mainstream smoke, is particularly harmful. Because exhaled smoke exists at lower temperatures than inhaled smoke, chemical compounds undergo changes which can cause them to become more dangerous. As well, smoke undergoes changes as it ages, which causes the transformation of the compound NO into the more toxic NO 2.
Further, volatilization causes smoke particles to become smaller, and thus more easily embedded deep into the lung of anyone who later breathes the air. In addition to chemical, nonradioactive carcinogens, tobacco and tobacco smoke contain small amounts of lead Pb and polonium Po both of which are radioactive carcinogens. The presence of polonium in mainstream cigarette smoke has been experimentally measured at levels of 0.
Smoking gives you dark under eye circles
Research by NCAR radiochemist Ed Martell suggested that radioactive compounds in cigarette smoke are deposited in "hot spots" where bronchial tubes branch, that tar from cigarette smoke is resistant to dissolving in lung fluid and that radioactive compounds have a great deal of time to undergo radioactive decay before being cleared by natural processes. Indoors, these radioactive compounds can linger in secondhand smoke, and greater exposure would occur when these radioactive compounds are inhaled during normal breathing, which is deeper and longer than when inhaling cigarettes.
Damage to the protective epithelial tissue from smoking only increases the prolonged retention of insoluble polonium compounds produced from burning tobacco. Martell estimated that a carcinogenic radiation dose of 80— rads is delivered to the lung tissue of most smokers who die of lung cancer. Smoking an average of 1. The combination of carcinogenic tar and radiation in a sensitive organ such as lungs increases the risk of cancer.
In contrast, a review of tobacco smoke carcinogens published in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute states that "levels of polonium in tobacco smoke are not believed to be great enough to significantly impact lung cancer in smokers. Free radicals and pro-oxidants in cigarettes damage blood vessels and oxidize LDL cholesterol.
Nicotine , which is contained in cigarettes and other smoked tobacco products, is a stimulant and is one of the main factors leading to continued tobacco smoking. Nicotine is a highly addictive psychoactive chemical. When tobacco is smoked, most of the nicotine is pyrolyzed ; a dose sufficient to cause mild somatic dependency and mild to strong psychological dependency remains.
The amount of nicotine absorbed by the body from smoking depends on many factors, including the type of tobacco, whether the smoke is inhaled, and whether a filter is used. There is also a formation of harmane a MAO inhibitor from the acetaldehyde in cigarette smoke, which seems to play an important role in nicotine addiction  probably by facilitating dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens in response to nicotine stimuli.
According to studies by Henningfield and Benowitz, nicotine is more addictive than cannabis , caffeine , ethanol , cocaine , and heroin when considering both somatic and psychological dependence. However, due to the stronger withdrawal effects of ethanol , cocaine and heroin , nicotine may have a lower potential for somatic dependence than these substances.
Ingesting a compound by smoking is one of the most rapid and efficient methods of introducing it into the bloodstream, second only to injection, which allows for the rapid feedback which supports the smokers' ability to titrate their dosage. On average it takes about ten seconds for the substance to reach the brain. As a result of the efficiency of this delivery system, many smokers feel as though they are unable to cease.
Of those who attempt cessation and last three months without succumbing to nicotine, most are able to remain smoke-free for the rest of their lives. Depression is also common in teenage smokers; teens who smoke are four times as likely to develop depressive symptoms as their nonsmoking peers. Although nicotine does play a role in acute episodes of some diseases including stroke , impotence , and heart disease by its stimulation of adrenaline release, which raises blood pressure,  heart and respiration rate, and free fatty acids , the most serious longer term effects are more the result of the products of the smouldering combustion process.
This has led to the development of various nicotine delivery systems, such as the nicotine patch or nicotine gum , that can satisfy the addictive craving by delivering nicotine without the harmful combustion by-products. This can help the heavily dependent smoker to quit gradually, while discontinuing further damage to health. Recent evidence has shown that smoking tobacco increases the release of dopamine in the brain, specifically in the mesolimbic pathway, the same neuro-reward circuit activated by drugs of abuse such as heroin and cocaine.
This suggests nicotine use has a pleasurable effect that triggers positive reinforcement. The carcinogenity of tobacco smoke is not explained by nicotine per se, which is not carcinogenic or mutagenic, although it is a metabolic precursor for several compounds which are. It is worth noting that nicotine , although frequently implicated in producing tobacco addiction, is not significantly addictive when administered alone. Second-hand smoke is a mixture of smoke from the burning end of a cigarette, pipe or cigar, and the smoke exhaled from the lungs of smokers.
It is involuntarily inhaled, lingers in the air hours after cigarettes have been extinguished, and may cause a wide range of adverse health effects, including cancer, respiratory infections and asthma.
Second-hand smoke has been estimated to cause 38, deaths per year, of which 3, are deaths from lung cancer in non-smokers.